The Aging Process – Research Studies With Epitalon

Anti-Aging Medicine
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Anti-Aging Medicine
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Studies suggest this peptide may have anti-aging properties and help cells stay healthy. This article details and discusses the potential properties of the compound.

Epitalon Peptide: What is it?

Epitalon, also known as Epithalon peptide or Epithalone, is a four-amino-acid tetrapeptide synthesized in a lab. Epitalon has the chemical formula C14H22N4O9 [i] and the amino acid sequence Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly.

The pineal gland naturally secretes a polypeptide called Epithalamin or Epithalamine, from which Epitalon is derived. The pineal gland is a tiny pea-shaped central brain gland considered to regulate sleep and wake cycles. “Third eye” is another name for it [ii].

Vladimir Khavinson of Russia is credited with discovering this synthetic peptide. Since then, the St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology has been at the forefront of clinical research on Epitalon.

Epitalon Peptide: Mechanism of Action

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a chemical that comprises an extremely important part of genes. It is located in the cell’s nucleus and copies itself during cell division [iii].

DNA molecules consist of several chromosomes, each carrying essential instructions for the cell’s proper functioning. Telomeres [iv] are a protective covering for the ends of DNA strands that prevent genetic information from being lost during cell division by repeating a sequence of nucleotide bases.

Telomerase is an enzyme found in nature that aids in replicating telomeres in cells. Telomerase activity leads to longer telomeres, which protect genetic material and improve cell health.

One may now comprehend the causes of aging because of a dramatic decline in telomerase production with age. As a result, one may age and develops illnesses associated with advanced age.

Studies suggest the pineal gland’s ability to produce its telomerase enzyme [v] may be stimulated by Epitalon, a synthetic telomerase activator enzyme. This means that even after many cell divisions, the telomeres at the ends of chromosomes remain maintained, and new telomeres may be added to the ends of DNA molecules.

Researchers speculate melatonin synthesis may be boosted, and secretion is controlled by Epitalon presentation. As melatonin release is considered to be a crucial molecule that regulates the sleep/wake cycle [vi], this aids in restoring normal circadian rhythm. Certain clinical investigations suggest Epitalon is a synthetic pineal peptide that may also regulate gonadotropin levels in the blood.

Epitalon Peptide’s Properties

Studies suggest Epitalon’s unique action method may make it useful for improving cell health by increasing the length of telomeres. This long-term effect is believed to extend life and slow the aging process.

In one of the clinical experiments, rats who were already old showed signs of aging more slowly. This experiment strongly supports the results of clinical studies done in parallel [vii].

Several studies suggested the Epitalon compound may lower the chance of acquiring age-related neurological disorders, as speculated by previous clinical research.

The potential antioxidant properties of Epitalon have been studied extensively in recent clinical studies, with findings suggesting that Epitalon may neutralise free radicals and prevent lipid oxidation from protecting against oxidative stress. By stimulating antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, Epitalon might be able to create antioxidant properties in test models.

T cells are a kind of white blood cell, and recent studies suggest that Epitalon may modulate their activity by triggering interferon-gamma synthesis [viii]. Researchers speculate that because Epitalon may control melatonin levels, the organism will have a more regular circadian cycle and better sleep.

Findings of other empirical investigations speculate that, by blocking the production of the MMP9 protein [ix]1, the peptide Epitalon may also promote the regeneration of aged skin fibroblasts. Licensed professionals hypothesise this process might lead to enhanced skin quality and a more even skin tone.

Some data also suggest that Epitalon may have positive properties on the efficient and quick healing of wounds; however, this is still debatable.

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an uncommon hereditary illness, yet some stunning threads imply that Epitalon may contain huge curative powers against RP. Finally, Epitalon mice suggested some buffering against the psychological effects of stress. Importantly, their means of coping have vastly improved, as experiments on test animals suggested.

That being said, all the compounds mentioned in this article are research peptides meant to be employed in clinical experiments conducted in contained laboratory spaces, on animal test subjects, and only by licensed professionals, scientists, academics, or persons certified to do so. These compounds have not been approved for human consumption.

References

[i] National Center for Biotechnology Information (2023). PubChem Compound Summary for CID 219042, Epitalon. Retrieved June 26, 2023 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Epitalon

[ii] Ilahi S, Beriwal N, Ilahi TB. Physiology, Pineal Gland. [Updated 2023 Apr 24]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK525955/

[iii] Travers A, Muskhelishvili G. DNA structure and function. FEBS J. 2015 Jun;282(12):2279-95. doi: 10.1111/febs.13307. Epub 2015 Jun 2. PMID: 25903461.

[iv] O’Sullivan RJ, Karlseder J. Telomeres: protecting chromosomes against genome instability. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2010 Mar;11(3):171-81. doi: 10.1038/nrm2848. Epub 2010 Feb 3. PMID: 20125188; PMCID: PMC2842081.

[v] Khavinson VKh, Bondarev IE, Butyugov AA. Epithalon peptide induces telomerase activity and telomere elongation in human somatic cells. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2003 Jun;135(6):590-2. doi: 10.1023/a:1025493705728. PMID: 12937682.

[vi] Arutjunyan A, Kozina L, Milyutina Y, Korenevsky A, Stepanov M, Arutyunov V. Melatonin and pineal gland peptides are able to correct the impairment of reproductive cycles in rats. Curr Aging Sci. 2012 Dec;5(3):178-85. doi: 10.2174/1874609811205030003. PMID: 23237594.

[vii] Anisimov VN, Khavinson VKh, Popovich IG, Zabezhinski MA, Alimova IN, Rosenfeld SV, Zavarzina NY, Semenchenko AV, Yashin AI. Effect of Epitalon on biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumor incidence in female Swiss-derived SHR mice. Biogerontology. 2003;4(4):193-202. doi: 10.1023/a:1025114230714. PMID: 14501183.

[viii] S. Kozina, A.V. Arutjunyan, V.Kh. Khavinson, Antioxidant properties of geroprotective peptides of the pineal gland, Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Volume 44, Supplement, 2007, Pages 213-216, ISSN 0167-4943, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2007.01.029.

[ix] Labunets IF, Butenko GM, Khavinson VKh, Magdich LV, Dragunova VA, Pishel’ IN, Azarskova MV. Reguliruiushchee vliianie peptidov épifiza na razvitie T-limfotsitov u mysheĭ linii CBA pri starenii: rol’ mikrookruzheniia organov immunnoĭ sistemy i neĭroéndokrinnykh faktorov [Regulating effect of pineal gland peptides on development of T-lymphocytes in CBA aging mice: role of microenvironment of immune system organs and neuroendocrine factors]. Adv Gerontol. 2003;12:111-20. Russian. PMID: 14743608.

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